HTLV-I/HTLV-II infection

Key information

Appropriate Tests

 

HTLV Ab. HTLV-I/II antibodies with confirmation of positive results by western blot.

Proviral load assays in neurological disease, lymphoma and blood borne virus exposure.

Transmission

 

Mother to child

 

Sexual

See Sexually transmitted diseases.

Intravenous drug use

 

Blood products

Routine HTLV Ab (HTLV-I/II antibody) testing of blood, semen and tissue donors.

See Blood transfusion.

Associated disease

 

HTLV-I

 

Adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma

Full blood count, Calcium, Bone marrow biopsy (aspiration and trephine) with Lymphocyte immunophenotyping, Molecular genetics.

Skin biopsy of affected area.

Tropical spastic paraparesis

 

HTLV-I associated myelopathy

Cerebrospinal fluid examination may be normal or show slight protein elevation with increased mononuclear cells.

Chronic progressive myelopathy

 

HTLV-II

 

Occasional cases of spastic paraparesis and myelopathy have been associated with HTLV-II infection.