Hepatocellular carcinoma

Associations

Appropriate Tests

 

Alpha-fetoprotein may assist in the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma, but a normal result does not exclude the possibility; Fine needle aspiration biopsy, Liver biopsy, if appropriate.

See also Cirrhosis.

Cirrhosis, especially

 

  • Alcoholic

See under Alcoholism.

  • Hepatitis B virus infection

Chronic aflatoxin ingestion is a cofactor.

  • Hepatitis C virus infection

 

  • Hereditary haemochromatosis

 

  • α1-antitrypsin deficiency

Alpha-1-antitrypsin.