Shock

Causes

Appropriate Tests

 

Electrolytes, Creatinine, Urea, Full blood count and Blood film.

Blood gas arterial; Lactate, if patient is acidotic.

If patient is oliguric: Osmolality urine, Sodium urine, Creatinine urine (with calculation of fractional excretion of sodium).

Hypovolaemia

 

  • Dehydration

 

  • Blood loss

 

  • Crush injury

 

  • Burn injury

See Burns

  • Addison’s disease

See under Adrenocortical insufficiency

  • Anaphylaxis

 

Cardiac causes, especially

 

  • Myocardial infarction

 

  • Arrhythmias

 

  • Pulmonary embolism

 

  • Cardiac tamponade, including

 

  • Pericardial effusion

 

  • Haemopericardium

 

Drug overdose, especially

 

  • Narcotics

 

  • Phenothiazines

 

Acute spinal cord injury

 

Septicaemia

 

Toxic shock syndrome

 

Acute iron poisoning

See Iron toxicity