Snake bite/envenomation

Complications

Appropriate Tests

 

Early management is essential and must not be delayed pending snake/venom identification.

Snake (species) identification must be attempted. Venom may be identified from swab or tissue from site of bite; urine may also be required. See Snake venom detection.

Full blood count, Blood film, Platelet count, Coagulation profile, APTT, Prothrombin time, D Dimer, Fibrinogen; Electrolytes, Creatinine, Urea, Electrolytes, Glucose, Urate, Calcium, Phosphate, Albumin, Creatine kinase, Lactate dehydrogenase. Ward test urine.

See Guideline on Pathology testing in the Emergency department: Appendix 2.

Local tissue necrosis

 

Respiratory paralysis

 

Renal failure - acute

 

Haemolysis

See Haemoglobinuria. 

May show red cell fragmentation in some cases.

Bleeding

See DIC

Neurotoxicity

 

Hyperkalaemia

 

Hypocalcaemia

 

Rhabdomyolysis

See Myoglobinuria