Trypanosomiasis

Presentation

Appropriate Tests

American ie Chagas' disease

 

Acute infection including

  • Fever
  • Oedema
  • Meningoencephalitis
  • Myocarditis

Trypanosomes.

Chronic infection

  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Arrhythmias
  • Megaoesophagus
  • Megacolon

Trypanosome Ab.

African ie Sleeping sickness

Trypanosomes. The concentration of parasites in the blood fluctuates so examination may have to be performed repeatedly. Cerebrospinal fluid examination is mandatory in all suspected or confirmed cases for accurate staging.

Local disease

  • Chancre

Microscopy of fluid from chancre.

Stage 1 disease

  • Fever
  • Lymphadenopathy

Trypanosomes in blood or fluid aspirated from lymph node.

Stage 2 disease

  • Headache
  • Diurnal somnolence
  • Ataxic dyskinesia

Cerebrospinal fluid examination (increased cells, protein and IgM levels).