Blood group and antibody screen

Keywords: Group and antibodies, ABO and Abs, G and Abs, GRP, GRP and screen

Specimen:

Patient's identity must be positively confirmed at time of sample collection (ie, asking the patient to state surname, given names and date of birth and check ID labels are fastened to the patient's wrist). Three approved patient identifiers (eg, surname, given names (in full), record number or date of birth) and date and time of collection, and signature or initials of collector.

10 mL blood in plain tube; for some methods, blood in EDTA is preferred - consult pathologist.

Careful labelling of tube, with correct patient details (surname, given names in full, date of birth, identification number) and collection date is essential.

Method:

Will be determined by the laboratory depending on transfusion history and antibody screen.

Patient’s plasma is tested against red cells of known phenotype by at least two methods including the indirect antiglobulin technique.

See Indirect Coombs test.

Application:

Routinely performed with blood group prior to blood transfusion. The presence and nature of antibodies determine selection of donor blood for compatibility testing.

Component of routine Antenatal screening, to predict and define possible haemolytic disease of the newborn.

Used in defining specificity of antibodies in immune haemolytic anaemia.

Interpretation:

Alloantibodies may be detected in patients with a history of previous blood transfusion or pregnancy. They may occasionally be naturally occurring.

Reference:

Guidelines for Pre-transfusion Testing. 4th ed. Sydney: Australasian Society of Blood Transfusion, 2002.

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) National Safety and Quality Health Service Standards. ACSQHC, Sydney, 2011.