Hepatocellular carcinoma


Appropriate Tests


Alpha-fetoprotein may assist in the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma, but a normal result does not exclude the possibility; Fine needle aspiration biopsy, Liver biopsy, if appropriate.

See also Cirrhosis.

Cirrhosis, especially


  • Alcoholic

See under Alcoholism.

  • Hepatitis B virus infection

Chronic aflatoxin ingestion is a cofactor.

  • Hepatitis C virus infection


  • Hereditary haemochromatosis


  • α1-antitrypsin deficiency