Appropriate Tests


Following documentation of hypertension and clinical assessment of likely cause, further investigation may be indicated: Creatinine, Electrolytes, Urinalysis, Urine microscopy.

Essential (idiopathic)


Renal disorders/disease, especially


  • Glomerulonephritis


  • Renal tubulo-interstitial disorders


  • Renal artery stenosis

Confirmatory tests include measurement of renal vein Renin by selective catheterisation - consult pathologist.

  • Polycystic kidney disease

See Cystic renal disease.

Pregnancy-induced hypertension

Urate, Protein urine.

Endocrine disorders, especially


  • Cushing's syndrome


  • Hyperthyroidism


  • Phaeochromocytoma


  • Hyperaldosteronism


Oestrogen therapy, including


  • Oral contraceptives