Keywords: Panhypopituitarism, Pituitary hormone deficiency


Appropriate Tests


Diagnosis and evaluation may involve assay of pituitary or target gland hormones.

Dynamic stimulation tests may assist to evaluate hormone reserves - consult pathologist.


Patients may have clinical or radiological evidence of a space occupying lesion in the pituitary fossa.

They may present initially with deficiency of a single hormone: Prolactin, Testosterone (in males), Luteinising hormone, Follicle stimulating hormone (in post-menopausal females), Thyroid stimulating hormone, Free T4, Cortisol, Growth hormone.

Non-functioning tumours

  • Adenoma
  • Craniopharyngioma
  • Meningioma
  • Germinoma
  • Metastatic carcinoma


Functioning tumours

  • Prolactinoma
  • Gonadotroph adenoma


Alpha subunit - this may be the main secretory product of the tumour.

Hypothalamic disorders

  • Tumour
  • Birth asphyxia
  • Histiocytosis

See also Pituitary/hypothalamic disorders

Vascular disorders

  • Post-partum necrosis (Sheehan's syndrome)








Septo-optic dysplasia



  • Sarcoidosis
  • Tuberculosis


Empty sella syndrome




Single hormone deficiency

May be the presenting feature of any cause of panhypopituitarism, however single hormone deficiency can occur and is usually genetic.

Growth hormone

Growth hormone stimulation test, IGF-1

See Short stature

  • Idiopathic


  • Genetic


  • Psychosocial dwarfism


  • Laron dwarfism


Growth hormone resistance, rather than deficiency; growth hormone levels are usually high.

Thyroid stimulating hormone

See also Hypothyroidism.

  • Genetic


Luteinising hormone, Follicle stimulating hormone

See also Infertility (male and female) and Testicular failure.
  • Kallmann syndrome


  • Genetic



See also Adrenocortical insufficiency.

  • Genetic