Appropriate Tests


In acute exacerbations: MCS sputum (occasionally bronchial brushings, lavage). Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are particularly important pathogens in this setting. Blood culture in severely ill patients with radiological evidence of pneumonia.

Cystic fibrosis


Post-infection eg,

  • Staphylococcal pneumonia
  • Pertussis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Measles


Local obstruction eg,


  • Foreign body


  • Bronchial tumour

Sputum cytology, bronchial brush, wash, lesion biopsy.

See Lung lesion


Immunoglobulins G, A, M

Immotile cilia syndrome eg,

  • Kartagener's syndrome

Tests of cilial function - consult pathologist. Nasal biopsy, including Electron microscopy (EM) for assessment of ciliary morphology.


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