Keywords: GN, Nephritis

Key Information

Appropriate Tests


Urinalysis, Protein urine, MCS urine (fresh specimen examined for casts and dysmorphic red cells).

Electrolytes, Creatinine, Urea, eGFR.

Diagnosis is established by Renal biopsy with Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry and Electron microscopy.

The possibility of underlying systemic disease should be considered.







Nephritic syndrome


Nephrotic syndrome




Renal failure




Primary renal disease


  • IgA nephropathy


  • Membranous GN

Phospholipase A2 receptor antibodies.

  • Minimal change disease


  • Post-infectious GN

Throat swab, skin lesions - bacterial culture (MCS pus). Antistreptolysin O titre, Anti-deoxyribonuclease B Ab, Complement components C3 and C4.

  • Crescentic GN

Glomerular basement membrane Ab, Antineutrophil cytoplasmic Ab.

  • Dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulopathy 

Complement components C3 and C4, Complement CH50 or CH100, AH50, complement C3 nephritic factor / genetics.

Associated with systemic disease


  • SLE


  • Goodpasture syndrome


  • Vasculitis syndromes, especially
    • Microscopic polyarteritis
    • Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
    • Henoch-Schönlein purpura

See Vasculitis

  • Malignancy

Protein electrophoresis, Free light chains.

Chronic infection-associated GN


  • Hepatitis B virus infection


  • Hepatitis C virus infection


  • Endocarditis (infective)


  • Malaria


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