Helicobacter pylori infection

Causal associations

Appropriate Tests


Endoscopy with Gastric biopsy or Small bowel biopsy (duodenal, special stains) to identify Helicobacter pylori; the Urease test can be used for rapid identification of infection, but is less sensitive than histology.

Culture for sensitivity testing if recurrent or refractory disease.

Helicobacter pylori Ab provide evidence of infection, but are of limited value as a positive result does not distinguish past from current infection. Antibody levels decline slowly after therapy.

Urea breath test can be used to identify continuing infection (radioactive and non radioactive available).

A specific Helicobacter pylori faecal antigen assay is available to detect current infection.

Peptic ulcer


Chronic atrophic gastritis


Gastric carcinoma


Gastric lymphoma


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