Appropriate Tests


Beta HCG quantitation. For fetal disorders, see Neonatal screening and specific inherited disorders.

Antenatal screening


Threatened miscarriage

Sequential human chorionic gonadotrophin is rarely helpful.


Examination of placenta

Ectopic pregnancy


Gestational trophoblastic disease

  • Hydatidiform mole
  • Partial mole
  • Choriocarcinoma
Beta HCG quantitation, examination of products of conception.

Urinary tract infection, including

  • Asymptomatic bacteriuria

MCS urine at first antenatal visit. Urinary tract infection (including asymptomatic bacteriuria) may be associated with premature delivery.

Pregnancy-induced hypertension (toxaemia)

Urate; Protein urine.

Gestational diabetes mellitus

Glucose challenge test.

See also Diabetes mellitus and Antenatal screening

Anaemia, especially

Full blood count, Blood film
  • Dilutional

The "physiological" anaemia of pregnancy.

  • Iron deficiency


  • Folate deficiency


Liver disease, especially


  • Cholestasis of pregnancy


  • Acute fatty liver

See under Hepatic failure

Venous thrombosis

See under Thrombosis

Peripartum bleeding

If an underlying acquired bleeding disorder is suspected: Full blood count, Blood film, Platelet count; APTT, INR, Thrombin time, Fibrinogen; D Dimer (Fibrin degradation products).

See also Bleeding disorders

DIC, causes include


  • Severe pregnancy-induced hypertension
  • Placental abruption
  • Septic abortion
  • Retained dead fetus
  • Amniotic fluid embolism

Examination of placenta

Fibrinolysis (primary)


Amniotic fluid embolism


Hepatic failure


Factor VIII inhibitor

A rare complication, developing within 3 months post-partum: APTT, INR, Coagulation factor inhibitors. Consult pathologist.

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