Appropriate Tests


Diagnosis and assessment of progression is based on clinical findings, particularly the appearance and extent of skin involvement.

Antinuclear Ab (especially Centromere Ab) and Extractable nuclear antigen Ab (especially Scl 70), RNA polymerase 3 antibodies and PM-SCL to differentiate between diffuse and limited forms of disease.

Creatinine, Urea as baseline measurements.

Renal biopsy or biopsy of other sites, as appropriate, to assess disease complications.

See also Connective tissue diseases

Cold related disorders, especially

  • Raynaud's phenomenon


CREST syndrome (limited scleroderma)


Interstitial lung disease


Pulmonary hypertension


Renal failure - acute, chronic


Gastrointestinal involvement, especially

  • Oesophageal hypomotility


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